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Archived in Civilization section

Awa are in severe danger of being wiped out altogether by Jim Down

Aw? the Brazil's last truly nomadic tribe

Throughout the last 100 years, the Aw? have been the victims of vicious and systematic extermination attempts by ranchers and settlers. Many of those who are in contact with outsiders are the survivors of massacres and are severely traumatised - and we know that many more of the nomadic Aw? are survivors of the same and similar attacks. They will continue to be vulnerable as long as their land has no protection. In 1982, Brazil undertook to demarcate all Indian territories in the region as a condition of a World Bank loan for an industrial project, and World Bank money…

Archived in Civilization section

Baghdad by Jim Down

Mosque and Arch to Unknown Soldier in Baghdad

Baghdad is the Capital of Iraq with 3,2 million inhabitants, and is situated in the interior of the country on the river Tigris at the point where land transportation meets river transportation.

Baghdad was the centre of the Muslim world during the years while the Caliphate stayed in Baghdad, starting in the 760s running up to 1258. There were other cities used as capital for the Caliphate for short periods but Baghdad retained its splendour until it was destroyed by the advancing Mongols in 1258.

Baghdad kept its position to a certain…

Archived in Civilization section

Boomerang by Jim Down


The use of the throwing wood is verified by rock paintings dating from the Neolithic Age. The throwing wood was mainly a long-range hunting weapon to hunt hares, birds and other small animals. Its character as a battle weapon was lost as soon as the culture reached a higher stage of development. The throwing wood developed separately in different places of the planet.

Archived in Civilization section

Brunelleschi Fillipo by Helena Stavridi

Brunelleschi Fillipo (1377-1446)

Brunelleschi Fillipo (1377-1446) is a distinguished Florentine architecture and engineering personality. As the earliest pioneer of Renaissance art in Italy, he first studied and used the ancient classic orders and he also managed to comprehend the importance of proportion in classic design. His will and his determination to master the Roman architectural principles of design and structure in order to mount in building, was one of the great advances in human knowledge and power for which the Renaissance is famous.

Moreover, Brunelleschi was in the versatility of his genius, an artist truly representative of his times.…

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