Louis Braille

Louis Braille was born on January 4th, 1809 in Coupvray, France to Monique and Simon Braille. At the age of three Louis lost his sight in an accident involving one of his dad's sharp tools. The infection of the injury spread to the other eye, leaving Louis completely blind. Despite his extraordinary handicap, Braille propelled himself to the top of his elementary class.

At the age of ten, Braille began his studies at the Royal Institution for Blind Youth in Paris. Here he was introduced to the raised-print system developed by the school's founder, Valentin Ha?y. This system consisted of raised print letters and was recognized as too inefficient for Braille.


At the age of fifteen, Braille had developed the system that we know today as Braille, developing a 6-dot cell based upon normal spelling. Like many geniuses at the time, Louis Braille's accomplishments became widespread only after his death. He perfected the system in 1834, and published "Method of Writing Words, Music and Plain Song by Means of Dots, for Use by the Blind and Arranged by Them" to introduce his system to the world.

VALENTIN HAUY
On a Sunday afternoon in September of 1771, Valentin Hauy, a well-dressed, respectable middle-class man of about twenty-five, strolled along the busy streets of Paris. He entered a popular eating establishment and took a table close to the stage to enjoy the afternoon’s entertainment. The performance that day changed his life.

Ten blind people dressed in ridiculous gowns and dunce hats, with oversized cardboard glasses fastened to their faces, formed a make-believe orchestra. They scraped away on musical instruments that they did not know how to play--violins, cellos, basses--while the crowd made fun of them and shouted rude comments. Valentin Hauy felt a deep compassion for those people whose eyes could not see, and he could not forget them.

Several years later, Valentin Hauy gave a few coins to a young blind boy begging near a church in Paris. The boy was thin, cold, and dressed in rags; his name was Francois Leseuer. Mr. Hauy observed the way Francois felt the raised markings on the coins and had an idea. Why couldn’t books be written with the letters raised as they are on coins? Then people who could not see with their eyes could read with their fingers.

Mr. Hauy took Francois off the street. He gave him food, shelter, and as much money as he would have received begging. Using wooden blocks with letters and numbers carved on them, he slowly taught Francois to read.

From that time on, Valentin Hauy dedicated his life and his resources to the education of blind children. He developed a way to print books with raised letters that could be read with the fingers. Toward the end of 1784, he opened the world’s first school for blind children in Paris. The children lived, studied, and worked at the school. One of the first teachers was Francois Leseuer. The school attracted the attention of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, the king and queen of France. They invited Mr. Hau to bring some of his blind students to the palace at Versailles on December 26, 1786, to demonstrate their reading ability. The king and queen were impressed with the children’s accomplishment, and the school became known as the Institution Royale des Juenes Aveugles (Royal Institute for Blind Youth).

During the French Revolution, the Royal Institute for Blind Youth was taken over by the State. Valentin Hauy was forced to give up his position as director of the Institute. He left France and traveled to Russia. While there, he accepted an invitation from Czar Alexander I to establish Russia’s first school for the blind at St. Petersburg.

Mr. Ha?y’s work became known throughout Europe. During his lifetime, schools for blind children were organized in England, Austria, Germany, Holland, Russia, Switzerland, and Denmark.

Valentin Hauy did not return to Paris until 1817.

LOUIS BRAILLE
Louis Braille was born January 4, 1809, in Coupvray, France, a small country village about twenty-five miles east of Paris. He lived with his mother, Monique, his father, Simon-Rene, his two older sisters, Monique-Catherine and Marie-Celine, and his older brother, Louis-Simon. Their home was a stone cottage in the village.

Coupvray is located in the Brie region of France, a fertile area of gentle hills, orchards, and vineyards. The village today is much as it was in 1809. There are family homes, farmhouses and farmyards, cobblestone streets, the village square, the town hall, and St. Pierre Church.

Six hundred and ten people lived in Coupvray in 1809, the year Louis Braille was born. They worked at trades such as doctor, midwife, tailor, locksmith, rope-maker, weaver, and harness-maker. They tended gardens and kept a few animals to provide food for the table, and cultivated vineyards, which lay just outside the village.

Simon-Rene Braille was the harness-maker. He was a master craftsman and was known throughout the region as a skilful and honest worker. His workshop was attached to the house, and Louis liked to watch him while he cut and shaped the leather into harnesses, reins, saddles, and collars for the villagers’ horses.

One day when Louis was three years old, he went into the workshop. His father was not there. He picked up a sharp tool and tried to cut a piece of leather as he had seen his father do. The tool slipped and plunged into his eye. The injured eye became infected, the infection spread to the other eye, and Louis Braille became blind.

In those days blind people faced a miserable future, usually as beggars or side show performers. Only those from wealthy families had any hope of an education and the possibility of meaningful work.

Simon-Rene and Monique Braille were deeply concerned for their young son and did all they could to help him. It is said that Louis’ father taught him the alphabet by guiding his fingers over strips of wood into which upholstery nails had been pounded in the shapes of the letters. When Louis understood the letters, his father guided his hand and taught him to write.

At about the same time Simon-Rene was teaching his son the alphabet, the Abbe Palluy, priest of St. Pierre Church in Coupvray, began instructing Louis about the ways of nature. He taught Louis to identify the songs of the birds, the cries of the animals, and the fragrances of the flowers. He taught him why the seasons change and why night becomes day. And he taught Louis about God.

Louis began attending school in Coupvray when he was seven years old. He surprised the teacher by his ability and intelligence. In spite of his blindness, he soon was at the head of the class. He was an exceptionally bright little boy.

The Abbe Palluy, concerned for Louis’ future, learned of a special school in Paris where blind children were educated and taught a trade. A scholarship was arranged, and Louis was accepted as a student.

In 1819, just six weeks after his tenth birthday, Louis and his father travelled by stagecoach to Paris. There, Louis entered the Royal Institute for Blind Youth where he would live, study, work, and later teach.

THE ROYAL INSTITUTE FOR BLIND YOUTH
The Royal Institute for Blind Youth was located in a rundown old building near the River Seine. The building was damp, dark, and poorly ventilated, and the food was inadequate. Dr. Guillie, the director of the Institute, was a proud and stubborn man whose decisions were not always based on what was best for the children.

However, the Institute offered advantages that could not be found elsewhere. There, blind girls and boys could study grammar, geography, history, arithmetic, science, and music, and they could learn a trade that would enable them to earn a living.

Louis was an outstanding student and excelled in every subject. He especially enjoyed the music classes, and he became a fine pianist and an accomplished organist. When he was sixteen, he accepted a paid position as organist for a small church near the Institute. For most of his life, he served as organist at one or more of the churches in Paris.

Learning at the Institute was primarily by listening to the lessons and repeating them. There were a few books. Valentin Hauy had developed a printing system by which the letters were raised, or embossed. The books were large and heavy, and feeling each letter one at a time was slow. It was the best method available at that time, however, and the children eagerly read every raised-letter book they could find.

A new director, Dr. Pignier, was appointed in 1821. Dr. Pignier was an intelligent and gentle man, a kind of father figure for the children. He immediately set about to improve conditions at the Institute and to introduce new and interesting activities for the children.

The children especially enjoyed the weekly rope walk to the Botanical Gardens. Led by a sighted teacher at the head of a rope, about twelve children held on to the rope behind the teacher. They walked this way to the gardens where they heard new sounds, listened to birds’ songs, smelled the garden fragrances, and listened to the teacher describe the flowers and trees. Sometimes they went to the Museum of Natural Sciences where they were allowed to touch some of the exhibits.

Although Valentin Hauy, now in his seventies, had returned to Paris in 1817, Dr. Guilli?, the director of the Institute at that time, had wanted nothing to do with him. He would not even permit him to visit the Institute. Mr. Hauy lived a lonely life in a small apartment a few blocks from the school he had founded forty-eight years ago.

When Dr. Pignier, the new director, learned of the unkind way in which Mr. Hauy had been treated, he helped the students plan a special celebration to welcome him back to the school. On August 21, 1821, Dr. Pignier sent a carriage to bring Valentin Ha?y to the Institute. The teachers and students applauded as the seventy-six-year-old man entered. Deeply touched, he talked with the students and told them of his love and gratitude. During the program in his honor, a chorus of students sang a song that had been written in 1788 by some of the Institute’s first pupils. (Those early students had written the song in tribute to their founder and had first sung it for him on Valentine’s Day thirty-three years ago.) Mr. Hauy was so overcome that all he could say was, “It is God who has done everything.” He died seven months later.

The events of the day made a lasting impression on twelve-year-old Louis Braille, and he felt deep love and admiration for Mr. Ha?y. That same year he began experimenting with circles, squares, and triangles cut from leather in an attempt to develop a special alphabet for the blind.

A NEW METHOD
Charles Barbier, a captain in the army, had developed a way for soldiers to communicate silently in the dark by means of raised dots and dashes on thin cardboard. Certain arrangements of dots and dashes, which could be felt with the fingers, meant “advance,” “general withdrawal,” and other commands. He called his system “night writing.”

Captain Barbier made changes to night writing and developed a method that he thought could be used by the blind. He renamed it Sonography and presented it to Dr. Pignier, director of the Royal Institute for Blind Youth.

At first the students were excited about the possibilities of Sonography and eagerly set out to learn it, but the problems of the system soon became apparent. Sonography was complicated to learn and difficult to use. It was based on sounds and did not provide for spelling, punctuation, capital letters, or numbers. Many dots were required to represent a single word.

Captain Barbier’s system had many faults, but it inspired thirteen-year-old Louis Braille to experiment with raised dots as the basis of a special alphabet for the blind. Louis worked every spare minute on his raised dot method, often late into the night, and sometimes all night. He was fifteen years old when he completed his alphabet. It consisted of various arrangements of raised dots within a six dot pattern, combined with short dashes.

Louis continued experimenting. He adapted his raised dot method so it could be used to write music. In 1929, when he was twenty years old, he published a little book with a long title: Method of Writing Words, Music and Plainsong by Means of Dots for Use by the Blind and Arranged for Them[/I]. This booklet explained for the first time the reading and writing method that would be known throughout the world as braille.

The students at the Institute enthusiastically adopted Louis’ raised dot method. Dr. Pignier recognized the genius of the system and encouraged Louis in every way he could. Sighted teachers and officials, however, were slow to accept the new method and actively fought against its use. It wasn’t until 1844, eight years before Louis Braille died, that the value of the raised dot alphabet was officially recognized.

THE TEACHER
Louis lived a busy and productive life at the Institute. He studied the organ, played for church services, and took classes at the College de France. When he was seventeen years old, he began to tutor younger students at the Institute. Two years later, he was appointed to a full time teaching position. He taught grammar, geography, arithmetic, and music. In return, he received room and board at the Institute and a small salary.

Louis Braille was a kind, compassionate teacher. He was greatly admired and respected by his students. One of his pupils wrote of him:

“He carried out his duties with so much charm and wisdom that the obligation of attending class was transformed into a real pleasure for his pupils. They competed not only to equal and surpass each other, but also in a touching and constant effort to please a teacher whom they admired as a superior and liked as a wise and well-informed friend, ready with sound advice.”

The Institute, with its damp, dark rooms, poor ventilation, and inadequate food, was an unhealthy environment in which to live and work. Many of the students became sick. Louis’ health began to fail when he was in his early twenties, and by the time he was twenty-six, he knew he had tuberculosis. At that time, there was no cure for the illness. The main treatment was rest.

Louis continued to revise and perfect his raised dot alphabet. He removed the dashes that were in his original plan. (Although dashes are easy to read by touch, they are difficult to write with a stylus.) He added the letter w at the request of an English student at the school. (His original alphabet did not include a w because w was rarely used in the French alphabet at that time).

He then turned his efforts toward developing a way that blind people and seeing people could write to each other. He knew that not many sighted people would learn the raised dot alphabet, therefore, blind people would have to learn the regular alphabet.

Louis developed a system that consisted of using a stylus to punch a series of dots in patterns that were the shapes of the regular letters. Blind people could read the letters by feeling them, and seeing people could read the letters with their eyes. He called the method Raphigraphy. The students at the Institute happily used it to write letters to their parents and friends.

It took much longer to punch dots in the shapes of letters than it did to punch the dots of the regular braille alphabet. Pierre Foucault offered to help Louis solve this problem. Pierre, who became blind when he was six, had a brilliant mind for mechanical matters. He invented a machine, which he called a Keyboard Printer. When a key was pressed, the shape of a letter was made on a piece of paper in ink; the shape of the letter was also impressed on the paper in a raised outline. It was one of the first typewriters.

In 1838 the government provided money to replace the old rundown building that housed the Institute. The new building was completed in 1843. At a special program celebrating the opening of the new school, Joseph Guadet, assistant director of the Institute, gave a speech about the advantages of the raised dot method. He paid tribute to its inventor, Louis Braille, who was in the audience.

Next there were demonstrations to prove to the audience that blind people really could read and write. Someone from the audience dictated a poem, and a young blind girl wrote the poem in braille. Another blind girl who was out of the room during the dictation came back to the room and easily read, without mistakes, what the first girl had written. They did a similar experiment with music braille. This was the first official recognition of the braille method, and the beginning of its spread throughout the world.

LAST YEARS
Louis’ health worsened as the years went by. He improved somewhat during vacations in the fresh country air of Coupvray, but his heart was with his students and his work. He could not stay away long.

In the early months of 1844, Louis became too weak to continue teaching. He lived a calm, quiet life, enjoyed a warm and loving companionship with his friends, and encouraged and advised his former students.

He managed his money carefully, buying only what he needed, so that he could save a little from his small income to help others. He used his own money to buy books and braille writing materials for poor students, paid them to copy the books into braille, and then gave the books to others.

Louis was known for his great kindness, but he never wanted to be thanked. After his death his friends found a small box on which he had written, “To be burned without opening.” They were curious and opened the box. In it were hundreds of notes of debt from students to whom he had loaned money. His friends respected his wishes and burned the box and its contents.

Louis’ health seemed to improve in 1847 and he returned to teaching for three more years. Although he was weak and had to talk softly to save his strength, his teaching was of the highest quality, and his students loved and respected him.

During this time, the braille method of reading and writing was used in all of the activities at the Institute. Books were copied into braille. Teachers and students used braille in the classroom. Braille was used in music classes and in chapel services. The method began to spread throughout Europe. In time blind people all over the world would use it.

His health again worsened, and Louis asked to be allowed to retire. The director knew Louis would not have enough money to live decently, so he kept him on as a teacher. He taught only a few piano lessons when he was able.

Louis became gravely ill in December of 1851. He remained calm and at peace, convinced that his mission on earth was finished. During this time he said to a friend:

“Yesterday was one of the greatest and most beautiful days of my life? I tasted the greatest joys. God was pleased to hold before my eyes the dazzling splendours of eternal hope. After that, doesn?t it seem that nothing more could keep me bound to the earth?”

Louis Braille died on January 6, 1852, two days after his forty-third birthday. His body was buried in the little cemetery at Coupvray.

EPILOGUE
When Louis Braille died in 1852, his raised dot alphabet had been the official method of reading and writing at the Royal Institute for Blind Youth for eight years. Few people outside of the Institute knew of the braille system.

In 1854 France officially recognized braille as the approved method of reading and writing for blind people. Joseph Guadet promoted its use by distributing examples of braille in English, French, Italian, German, Latin, and Spanish.

One after another, countries around the world recognized the benefits of braille. A world congress met in Paris in 1878 and selected braille as the appropriate system of reading and writing for the blind. In 1890, braille was adopted in schools for the blind in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, England, Germany, Spain, and Scotland. In 1917, the United States recommended that braille be used in its schools, and in 1949, under the leadership of the United Nations, work began on adapting braille to more than two hundred languages and dialects throughout the world. Braille had become a universal language.

One hundred years after Louis Braille’s death, his body was moved from Coupvray to the Panth?on in Paris to lie with other great men and women of France. People came from all over the world to participate in the ceremonies.

The stone house in Coupvray where Louis Braille was born and grew up is now a museum. The street on which it stands is named Louis Braille Street. Visitors to the museum can view documents and mementoes relating to the life and work of Mr. Braille. On the wall of the house is a plaque which reads:

In this house
on January 4, 1809
was born
LOUIS BRAILLE
The inventor of the system of
writing in raised dots for use
by the blind.
He opened the doors of
knowledge to all those
who cannot see.

Reference:
The Louis Braille Center, Carolyn Meyer