The Japanese native religion is centered entirely on Japan, its topography, its gods, its dead, its impereal family, and its people. Its central myth, as told in the Kojiki, describes how Izanagi and Izanami came down the bridge of Heaven and made the island of Japan and their first inhabitants, who were, of course, all gods (Kami in the "land of the gods". Upon Izanami's death, Izanagi followed her to the underworld; on emerging he cleansed from his right eye Amaterasu the sun goddess, from his left eye Tsukiyomi the moon god, and from his nostrils Susannowo the storm god. Amaterasu lived in the heavens and her grandson Ninigi on earth; Ninigi's great-grandsonwas Jimmu Tenno, the first human emperor, from whom the present emperor is lineally descended. The Japanese people have meanwhile descended from the other gods. So, according to the myth, Japan is a divine land, sprung from the womb of a goddess, and is filled with gods and their descendants.
The Shinto shrines are wooden structures of an ancient design, with unique gateways called torii. They honor the sun goddess and a host of other deities reflecting Japan’s geography, climate, plant and animal life. Ancestors and heroes are also venerated, and in times past the emperor also.
Shinto received its name when Japan was undergoing transformation under Chinese influences in the sixth to eighth centuries A.D. The name is derived from shen-tao ("the Way of the Gods"). During the period of Buddhist influence, the Shinto deities were declared to be the “appearances” of the buddhas and the bodhisattvas when the came to Japan. In the 17th century, when Shinto experienced a revival, this formulation was discouraged, but with little success. In the 19th century, after the visit of U.S. Admiral Perry, the Japanese systematically brought about a second transformation of Japan to accord with their desire to become a modern world power. In the 1930’s, during the Japanese Army’s attempt to establish control over the Far East, the Shinto myth was invoked to intensify emperor-worship and secure unqualified obedience to the national program of war and conquest. Men of the armed forces were committed by solemn vows never to surrender to an enemy. The medieval Bushido or samurai code was revived, and suicide in repelled attack or hopeless defence (hara-kiri) was elevated to a moral principle.
Since 1945 the emperor has “descended from his divinity” and lives among the people as a fully human being. The nation has renounced war as an instrument of national policy, and the Shinto shrines formerly maintained by the government have been turned over to private control. The Shinto sects are proliferating into hundreds more, many of them seeking syncretizing solutions to religious need. It is a highly fluid situation, with an uncertain future.
Summarizing Shinto beliefs:
* Shinto creation stories tell of the history and lives of the “Kami” (deities). Among them was a divine couple, Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no-mikoto, who gave birth to the Japanese islands. Their children became the deities of the various Japanese clans. Amaterasu Omikami (Sun Goddess) was one of their daughters. She is the ancestress of the Imperial Family and is regarded as the chief deity. Her shrine is at Ise. Her descendants unified the country. Her brother, Susano came down from heaven and roamed throughout the earth. He is famous for killing a great evil serpent.
* The Kami are the Shinto deities. The word “Kami” is generally translated “god” or “gods.” However, the Kami bear little resemblance to the gods of monotheistic religions. There are no concepts which compare to the Christian beliefs in the wrath of God, his omnipotence and omni-presence, or the separation of God from humanity due to sin. There are numerous other deities who are conceptualized in many forms:
- Those related to natural objects and creatures, from “food to rivers to rocks.”
- Guardian Kami of particular areas and clans
- Exceptional people, including all but the last of the emperors.
- Abstract creative forces
They are seen as generally benign; they sustain and protect the people.
* About 84% of the population of Japan follow two religions: both Shinto and Buddhism. (As in much of Asia, Christianity is quite rarely. 12 Fewer than 1% of adults are Christians.) Buddhism first arrived in Japan from Korea and China during the 6th through 8th centuries CE. The two religions share a basic optimism about human nature, and for the world. Within Shinto, the Buddha was viewed as another “Kami”. Meanwhile, Buddhism in Japan regarded the Kami as being manifestations of various Buddhas and Bodhisattvas. Most weddings are performed by Shinto priests; funerals are performed by Buddhist priests.
* Shinto does not have as fully developed a theology as do most other religions. It does not have its own moral code. Shintoists generally follow the code of Confucianism.
* Their religious texts discuss the “High Plain of Heaven” and the “Dark Land” which is an unclean land of the dead, but give few details of the afterlife.
* Ancestors are deeply revered and worshipped.
* All of humanity is regarded as “Kami’s child.” Thus all human life and human nature is sacred.
* Believers revere “musuhi”, the Kamis’ creative and harmonizing powers. They aspire to have “makoto”, sincerity or true heart. This is regarded as the way or will of Kami.
* Morality is based upon that which is of benefit to the group. “Shinto emphasizes right practice, sensibility, and attitude.”
* There are “Four Affirmations” in Shinto:
1. Tradition and the family: The family is seen as the main mechanism by which traditions are preserved. Their main celebrations relate to birth and marriage.
2. Love of nature: Nature is sacred; to be in contact with nature is to be close to the Gods. Natural objects are worshipped as sacred spirits.
3. Physical cleanliness: Followers of Shinto take baths, wash their hands, and rinse out their mouth often.
4. “Matsuri”: The worship and honor given to the Kami and ancestral spirits.
* The desire for peace, which was suppressed during World War II, has been restored.
* Shinto recognizes many sacred places: mountains, springs, etc.
* Each shrine is dedicated to a specific Kami who has a divine personality and responds to sincere prayers of the faithful. When entering a shrine, one passes through a Tori a special gateway for the Gods. It marks the demarcation between the finite world and the infinite world of the Gods.
* In the past, believers practiced “misogi,”, the washing of their bodies in a river near the shrine. In recent years they only wash their hands and wash out their mouths in a wash basin provided within the shrine grounds.
* Believers respect animals as messengers of the Gods. A pair of statues of “Koma-inu” (guard dogs) face each other within the temple grounds.
* Shrine ceremonies, which include cleansing, offerings, prayers, and dances are directed to the Kami.
* Kagura are ritual dances accompanied by ancient musical instruments. The dances are performed by skilled and trained dancers. They consist of young virgin girls, a group of men, or a single man.
* Mamori are charms worn as an aid in healing and protection. They come in many different forms for various purposes.
* An altar, the “Kami-dana” (Shelf of Gods), is given a central place in many homes.
* Seasonal celebrations are held at spring planting, fall harvest, and special anniversaries of the history of a shrine or of a local patron spirit. A secular, country-wide National Founding Day is held on FEB-11 to commemorate the founding of Japan; this is the traditional date on which the first (mythical) emperor Jinmu ascended the throne in 660 BCE. Some shrines are believed to hold festivities on that day. Other festivals include: JAN 1-3 Shogatsu (New Year); MAR-3 Hinamatsuri (Girls’ festival); MAY-5 Tango no Sekku (Boys’ festival); JUL-7 Hoshi Matsuri (Star festival).
* Followers are expected to visit Shinto shrines at the times of various life passages. For example, the Shichigosan Matsuri involves a blessing by the shrine Priest of girls aged three and seven and boys aged five. It is held on NOV-15.
* Many followers are involved in the “offer a meal movement,” in which each individual bypasses a breakfast (or another meal) once per month and donates the money saved to their religious organization for international relief and similar activity.
* Origami ("Paper of the spirits"): This is a Japanese folk art in which paper is folded into beautiful shapes. They are often seen around Shinto shrines. Out of respect for the tree spirit that gave its life to make the paper, origami paper is never cut.
Forms of Shinto:
Shinto exists in four main forms or traditions:
* Koshitsu Shinto (The Shinto of the Imperial House): This involves rituals performed by the emperor, who the Japanese Constitution defines to be the “symbol of the state and of the unity of the people.” The most important ritual is Niinamesai, which makes an offering to the deities of the first fruits of each year’s grain harvest. Male and female clergy (Shoten and Nai-Shoten) assist the emperor in the performance of these rites.
* Jinja (Shrine) Shinto : This is the largest Shinto group. It was the original form of the religion; its roots date back into pre-history. Until the end of World War II, it was closely aligned with State Shinto. The Emperor of Japan was worshipped as a living God. Almost all shrines in Japan are members of Jinja Honcho, the Association of Shinto Shrines. It currently includes about 80,000 shrines as members. The association urges followers of Shinto:
1. “To be grateful for the blessings of Kami and the benefits of the ancestors, and to be diligent in the observance of the Shinto rites, applying oneself to them with sincerity. brightness, and purity of heart.”
2. “To be helpful to others and in the world at large through deeds of service without thought of rewards, and to seek the advancement of the world as one whose life mediates the will of Kami.”
3. “To bind oneself with others in harmonious acknowledgment of the will of the emperor, praying that the country may flourish and that other peoples too may live in peace and prosperity.”
* Kyoha (Sectarian) Shinto (aka Shuha Shinto): This consists of 13 sects which were founded by individuals since the start of the 19th century. Each sect has its own beliefs and doctrines. Most emphasize worship of their own central deity; some follow a near-monotheistic religion.
* Minzoku (Folk) Shinto This is not a separate Shinto group; it has no formal central organization or creed. It is seen in local rural practices and rituals, e.g. small images by the side of the road, agriculture rituals practiced by individual families, etc. A rural community will often select a layman annually, who will be responsible for worshiping the local deity.
These three forms are closely linked. An image may be installed by a member of one of the Sectarian Shinto sects who worships at a particular shrine. Shinto is a tolerant religion which accepts the validity of other religions. It is common for a believer to pay respect to other religions, their practices and objects of worship.
Many texts are valued in the Shinto religion. Most date from the 8th century CE:
* The Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters)
* The Rokkokushi (Six National Histories)
* The Shoku Nihongi and its Nihon Shoki (Continuing Chronicles of Japan)
* The Jinno Shotoki (a study of Shinto and Japanese politics and history) written in the 14th century