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ESTABLISHED ON JUNE 16, 2002
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Archived in Culture section

Birthdays, Those Important Dates by Fotopoulou Sophia

Before humans had a way of keeping time, no one paid much attention to the anniversary of important events, such as birthdays. Only when ancient peoples began taking notice of the moon's cycles, did they pay attention to the changing seasons and the pattern that repeated itself over and over. Eventually, the first calendars were formulated in order to mark time changes and other special days. From this tracking system came the ability to celebrate birthdays and other significant anniversaries the same day each year.

Archived in Culture section

Bossa Nova by Liz Heart

Joao Gilberto; The father of Bossa Nova

Perhaps ironically, bossa nova, the music style associated with complacence, is also considered responsible for the birth of the protest music of the 1960s that denounced the political uproar Brazil found itself in that led to the military coup of 1964.

Critical of the insipid character of bossa nova lyrics and influenced by the precarious political and economic situation of Brazil, artists started using music to voice their opinions and as a vehicle to teach the largely uneducated Brazilian population about their country's current social, political and economic status.

Archived in Culture section

Brothers Grimm by Jim Down

Brothers Grimm

Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm known as The Grimm Brothers (Brüder Grimm ) were born at Hanau in Hasse-Kassel, Germany. Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm the second son, was born on January 4, 1785 and Wilhelm Carl Grimm the third son, was born on February 24, 1786.

Archived in Culture section

Bunraku by Lao Long

Bunraku puppet

Already in the Heian period (794-1185), itinerant puppeteers known as kugutsumawashi traveled around Japan playing door-to-door for donations. In this form of street entertainment, which continued up through the Edo period, the puppeteer manipulated two hand puppets on a stage that consisted of a box suspended from his neck.

A number of the kugutsumawashi are thought to have settled at Nishinomiya and on the island of Awaji, both near present-day Kobe. In the sixteenth century, puppeteers from these groups were called to Kyoto to perform for the imperial family and military leaders. It was around this time…

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