The first "inventors" of aspirin were the Sumerians who knew the medicinal virtues of willow leaves. They therefore used these willow leaves as painkillers and were especially used to relieve fevers. In the year 400 B.C, Hippocrates recommended to women to drink "Willow leaf teas" to relieve the pain while giving birth and to stop the fever.
The term "stress" often is used to describe the subjective feeling of pressure or tension. However, when scientists refer to stress, they mean the many objective physiological processes that are initiated in response to a stressor.
As this Alcohol Alert explains, the stress response is a complex process; the association between drinking and stress is more complicated still. Because both drinking behavior and an individual's response to stress are determined by multiple genetic and environmental factors, studying the link between alcohol consumption and stress may further our understanding of drinking behavior.
Penicillin is one of the earliest discovered and widely used antibiotic agents, derived from the Penicillium mold. Antibiotics are natural substances that are released by bacteria and fungi into the earth. In 1928, Sir Alexander Fleming observed that colonies of the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus could be destroyed by the mold Penicillium notatum. Proving that medicines could kill certain types of disease-causing bacteria inside the body. At the time, however, the importance of Fleming's discovery was not known. Use of penicillin did not begin until the 1940s when Howard Florey and Ernst Chain developed a powdery form of the medicine.
The aloe plant originally came from Africa. The leaves, which are long, green, fleshy, and have spikes along the edges, are used medicinally. The fresh leaf gel and latex are used for many purposes. Aloe latex is the sticky residue left over after the liquid from cut aloe leaves has evaporated.
Aloe has been historically used for many of the same conditions for which it is used today -particularly constipation and minor cuts and burns. In India, it has been used by herbalists to treat intestinal infections, suppressed menses, and colic.